April 21, 2020 is this year’s date for Yom HaShoah, or Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day. Israel commemorates the day by sounding a siren for 2 minutes throughout the country. During that time, the entire nation is required to stop what they are doing (including driving), until the siren stops. “Yom” means “day” in Hebrew, and “Shoah,” which is a word used several times in the Bible, means “calamity.”
Yom HaShoah always falls on the 27th day of the Jewish month of Nissan, since that marks the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. When the Nazis invaded Poland and started WWII on September 1, 1939, they forced all of its Jewish inhabitants to live in certain enclosed areas (ghettos) within their cities. Since Warsaw is the capital of Poland, that city held the largest of these ghettos. The Nazis gradually transported people from the ghettos to concentration camps, so in 1943, the remaining survivors in the Warsaw Ghetto had had enough, and revolted against the Germans. Although the revolt was unsuccessful, it was the largest Jewish uprising during the Holocaust. The 2002 film The Pianist depicts this tragic event.
The two largest Holocaust museums in the world are Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C., respectively. Israel’s museum (Yad Vashem means “a memorial and a name” and comes from Isaiah 56:5) began in 1953, five years after Israel became an independent nation. The United States’ museum was completed forty years later, in 1993. Both museums are free, crowded, provide tours in several languages, and incorporate the video testimonies of survivors as part of their exhibits. Both also have amazing websites filled with primary sources such as photos, video testimonies, documents, etc. Additionally, Yad Vashem has a database of all of the documented victims of the Holocaust, as well as a database of all of the documented “Righteous Among the Nations,” or individuals who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. Yad Vashem has also planted a tree for every known Righteous Among the Nations, with the name of a rescuer placed on a plaque beneath each tree. Visitors can see the trees as they walk around the Museum’s grounds.
Perhaps two of the most visceral memorials at Yad Vashem are the Children’s Memorial and the Hall of Names. The Children’s Memorial is a separate building on the Museum’s grounds, memorializing the approximately 1.5 million children who died in the Holocaust. It contains photos of children, and a candle placed in the center of the room, with mirrors reflecting the candle’s light throughout the space. The Hall of Names contains books of the names of victims, as well as a domed ceiling with the photos of many victims spread across it. (The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum also has a room full of victims’ photos.) However, Yad Vashem’s main exhibit ends in hope. It ends with a large window overlooking the city of Jerusalem, which is a way of showing visitors that Hitler’s goal of annihilating the Jews failed.
The most visceral display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is the shoe collection. It displays 4,000 shoes, on long-term loan from Majdanek concentration camp near Lublin, Poland. When you hear that six million Jews died during the Holocaust, it just sounds like statistics. However, when you see 4,000 different types of shoes piled on top of each other, the reality that each one belonged to a unique individual who died makes the numbers sink in more.
I have also written about the third largest Holocaust museum in the world: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.
Sources and Further Reading
“The Central Database of Shoah Victims’ Names.” Yad Vashem. https://yvng.yadvashem.org/index.html?language=en (accessed April 18, 2020).
Gilad, Elon. “Shoah: How a Biblical Term Became the Hebrew Word for Holocaust.” Haaretz. May 1, 2019. https://www.haaretz.com/jewish/holocaust-remembrance-day/.premium-shoah-how-a-biblical-term-became-the-hebrew-word-for-holocaust-1.5236861 (accessed April 18, 2020).
“The Righteous Among the Nations Database.” Yad Vashem. https://righteous.yadvashem.org/ (accessed April 18, 2020).
“Yom Hashoah.” BBC. April 27, 2011. https://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/holydays/yomhashoa.shtml (accessed April 18, 2020).